Association of Phosphodiesterase 4D with ischemic stroke: A population-based case-control study

Daniel Woo, Ritesh Kaushal, Brett Kissela, Padmini Sekar, Michael Wolujewicz, Prodipto Pal, Kathleen Alwell, Mary Haverbusch, Irene Ewing, Rosie Miller, Dawn Kleindorfer, Matthew Flaherty, Ranajit Chakraborty, Ranjan Deka, Joseph Broderick

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69 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose - The Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene was reported recently to be associated with ischemic stroke in an Icelandic population. The association was found predominately with large vessel and cardioembolic stroke. However, 2 recent reports were unable to confirm this association, although a trend toward association with cardioembolic stroke was reported. None of the reports included significant proportions of blacks. We tested for genotype and haplotype association of polymorphisms of the PDE4D gene with ischemic stroke in a population-based, biracial, case-control study. Methods - A total of 357 cases of ischemic stroke and 482 stroke-free controls from the same community were examined. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen based on significant associations reported previously. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), SNP, and haplotype association analysis was performed using PHASE 2.0 and Haploview 3.2. Results - Although several univariate associations were identified, only 1 SNP (rs2910829) was found to be significantly associated with cardioembolic stroke among both whites and blacks. The rs152312 SNP was associated with cardioembolic stroke among whites after multiple comparison corrections. The same SNP was not associated with cardioembolic stroke among blacks. However, significant haplotype association was identified for both whites and blacks for all ischemic stroke, cardioembolic stroke, and stroke of unknown origin. Haplotype association was identified for small vessel stroke among whites. Conclusions - PDE4D is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and, in particular, for cardioembolic stroke, among whites and blacks. Further study of this gene is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-376
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2006


  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Ischemic
  • Stroke


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