Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) has been reported to demonstrate linkage and association with ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. However, replication studies have been conflicting and to date, a significant proportion of blacks have not been studied. We prospectively recruited cases of ischemic stroke from all 16 hospitals in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region and demographically matched them to stroke-free population-based controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on association with ischemic stroke in prior studies. Allelic, genotypic and haplotypic association testing was performed using HAPLOVIEW. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for the presence of traditional risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. A total of 357 cases and 482 controls were genotyped. The SNPs, rs9579646 and rs4769874 were found to be significantly associated at both allelic (P=0.019 and P < 10-4, respectively) and genotypic level with ischemic stroke among whites after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype association was identified with ischemic stroke as well as ischemic stroke subtypes among whites. Although an overall haplotype association with ischemic stroke was identified among blacks no evidence of association among individual haplotypes, alleles or genotypes were observed. Allele frequencies for the SNPs examined were markedly different among whites and blacks. In conclusion, we report significant association of variants of ALOX5AP with ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes among whites. No significant association was identified among blacks.