Association between acculturation and metabolic syndrome in Hispanic adults mediated by fruits intake

Jialiang Liu, Kimberly G. Fulda, Meng Hua Tao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Hispanic adults in the USA tend to have a disproportionate prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared to other races. Design: We examined whether the association between acculturation and MetS and its components are mediated by the intake of fruit in Hispanics. Setting: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2016 were used in this study. Participants: A total of 2078 Hispanics aged ≥ 20 years were included in this analysis. Results: The mediating role of total fruit intake was assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic structural equation models with the bootstrapping method by estimating indirect (IE) and direct (DE) effects from acculturation to MetS. High acculturation was associated with increased odds of MetS (adjusted OR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·39), central obesity (OR = 1·24, 95 % CI 1·07, 1·44) and high blood pressure (OR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·32) among Hispanic adults. Total fruits intake partially mediated the associations of acculturation with MetS (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) and central obesity (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03), whereas fully mediated the association between acculturation and high blood pressure (ORIE = 1·03, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·06). Moreover, intake of total fruits fully mediated the acculturation-MetS association among Mexican Americans (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·05). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that increasing fruit consumption may reduce the impact of high acculturation on MetS development in Hispanic adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6472-6476
Number of pages5
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Issue number18
StatePublished - 16 Dec 2021


  • Acculturation
  • Hispanics
  • Mediation analysis
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Total fruits intake


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