Antipsychotic medication adherence and preventive diabetes screening in Medicaid enrollees with serious mental illness: an analysis of real-world administrative data

Erica L. Stockbridge, Nathaniel J. Webb, Eleena Dhakal, Manasa Garg, Abiah D. Loethen, Thaddeus L. Miller, Karabi Nandy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: There is excess amenable mortality risk and evidence of healthcare quality deficits for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). We sought to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with variations in two 2015 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures, antipsychotic medication adherence and preventive diabetes screening, among Medicaid enrollees with serious mental illness (SMI). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed claims data from September 2014 to December 2015 from enrollees in a Medicaid specialty health plan in Florida. All plan enrollees had SMI; analyses included continuously enrolled adults with antipsychotic medication prescriptions and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Associations were identified using mixed effects logistic regression models. Results: Data for 5502 enrollees were analyzed. Substance use disorders, depression, and having both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses were associated with both HEDIS measures but the direction of the associations differed; each was significantly associated with antipsychotic medication non-adherence (a marker of suboptimal care quality) but an increased likelihood of diabetes screening (a marker of quality care). Compared to whites, blacks and Hispanics had a significantly greater risk of medication non-adherence. Increasing age was significantly associated with increasing medication adherence, but the association between age and diabetes screening varied by sex. Other characteristics significantly associated with quality variations according to one or both measures were education (associated with antipsychotic medication adherence), urbanization (relative to urban locales, residing in suburban areas was associated with both adherence and diabetes screening), obesity (associated with both adherence and diabetes screening), language (non-English speakers had a greater likelihood of diabetes screening), and anxiety, asthma, and hypertension (each positively associated with diabetes screening). Conclusions: The characteristics associated with variations in the quality of care provided to Medicaid enrollees with SMI as gauged by two HEDIS measures often differed, and at times associations were directionally opposite. The variations in the quality of healthcare received by persons with SMI that were identified in this study can guide quality improvement and delivery system reform efforts; however, given the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics’ differing associations with different measures of care quality, multidimensional approaches are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number69
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Claims data
  • Complex comorbidity
  • Diabetes screening
  • Healthcare effectiveness data and information set (HEDIS)
  • Healthcare quality
  • Medicaid
  • Medication adherence
  • Mental health
  • Mixed effects logistic regression
  • Serious mental illness
  • Social determinants of health

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