Obese Zucker rats (OZR) have elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). We examined whether altered tonic glutamatergic, angiotensinergic, or GABAergic inputs to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contribute to elevated SNA and MAP in OZR. Male rats (14-18 wk) were anesthetized with urethane (1.5 g/kg iv), ventilated, and paralyzed to record splanchnic SNA, heart rate (HR), and MAP. Inhibition of the RVLM by microinjections of muscimol eliminated SNA and evoked greater decreases in MAP in OZR vs. LZR (P < 0.05). Antagonism of angiotensin AT1 receptors in RVLM with losartan yielded modest decreases in SNA and MAP in OZR but not LZR (P < 0.05). However, antagonism of ionotropic glutamate receptors in RVLM with kynurenate produced comparable decreases in SNA, HR, and MAP in OZR and LZR. Antagonism of GABAA receptors in RVLM with gabazine evoked smaller rises in SNA, HR, and MAP in OZR vs. LZR (P < 0.05), whereas responses to microinjections of GABA into RVLM were comparable. Inhibition of the caudal ventrolateral medulla, a major source of GABA to the RVLM, evoked attenuated rises in SNA and HR in OZR (P <0.05). Likewise, inhibition of nucleus tractus solitarius, the major excitatory input to caudal ventrolateral medulla, produced smaller rises in SNA and HR in OZR. These results suggest the elevated SNA and MAP in OZR is derived from the RVLM and that enhanced angiotensinergic activation and reduced GABAergic inhibition of the RVLM may contribute to the elevated SNA and MAP in the OZR.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|State||Published - 1 Jul 2011|
- Sympathetic nerve activity