Adults with Trisomy 21 Have Differential Antibody Responses to Influenza A

Stephanie James, Robert C. Haight, Cassandra Hanna, Lindsey Furton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. In the past two decades, the life expectancy of individuals with Down syndrome has significantly increased from early 20s to early 60s, creating a population of individuals of which little is known about how well they are protected against infectious disease. The goal of this work is to better understand if adults with Down syndrome are well protected against influenza following vaccination. We obtained plasma samples from 18 adults (average age = 31yo) with Down syndrome and 17 age/gender-matched disomic individuals, all vaccinated against influenza. Antibody concentration to influenza A was measured using ELISA and antibody titers were measured using a hemagglutinin inhibition assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata Statistical Software. Adults with Down syndrome had a significantly increased concentration of antibodies to a mixture of influenza A viral proteins; however, they had a significantly decreased titer to the Influenza A/Hong Kong compared to disomic controls. These findings suggest that more vigorous studies of B- and T-cell function in adults with Down syndrome with respect to influenza vaccination are warranted, and that this population may benefit from a high-dose influenza vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1145
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Down syndrome
  • Trisomy 21
  • influenza
  • vaccine


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