PURPOSE. Glaucoma is a leading cause worldwide of blindness and visual impairment. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGFβ2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) based on elevated levels in glaucomatous aqueous humor and its ability to induce extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The goal of this study was to generate a rodent model of POAG using viral gene transfer of human TGFβ2. METHODS. Latent (hTGFβ2WT) or active (C226S, C228S; hTGFβ226/228) TGFβ2-encoding cDNA was cloned into the pac.Ad5.CMV.K-N.pA shuttle vector for generation of replication-deficient adenovirus. Empty adenovirus (Ad5.CMV.KN. pA) was used as a control. Adenoviral expression of active and total TGFβ2 was assayed in vitro by the transduction of Chinese hamster ovary and trabecular meshwork cells. BALB/cJ mice or Wistar rats were injected either intracamerally or intravitreally with the adenovectors and assessed for changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) using the rebound tonometer. At peak IOP, aqueous outflow facility and total TGFβ2 levels in aqueous humor were measured. Mouse eye morphology was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS. Adenoviral gene transfer of hTGFβ226/228, but not hTGFβ2WT, to the rodent eye elevated IOP in rat (43%, P β 0.001) and mouse (110%, P<: 0.001) and reduced aqueous humor outflow facility in the mouse. The TGFβ2-induced ocular hypertension correlated with anterior segment TGFβ2 expression levels (P β 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. The adenoviral TGFβ2 rodent model displays the glaucoma risk factors of elevated IOP and decreased aqueous outflow facility and may potentially serve as a model for studying glaucoma.