Activation of human spleen glucocerebrosidases by monoacylglycol sulfates and diacylglycerol sulfates

Mary L. Gonzales, Alakananda Basu, Gerard H. de Haas, Ruud Dijkman, Maarten G. van Oort, Angela A. Okolo, Robert H. Glew

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Abstract

The study of the acidic lipid requirement of human spleen glucocerebrosidase was extended to include two new series of acidic lipids, namely, monoacylglycol sulfates and diacylglycerol sulfates. Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase was extracted with sodium cholate and 1-butanol to render its β-glucosidase activity dependent upon exogenous lipids. Maximum reactivation of control glucocerebrosidase was obtained with nonanoylglycol sulfate (NGS) and diheptanoylglycerol sulfate (DHGS). However, the effects of these lipids were markedly dependent on the nature of buffer used in the assay medium; specifically, 0.2 m sodium citrate-phosphate (pH 5.5) was much more effective than 0.2 m sodium acetate (pH 5.5) in permitting these lipids to reactivate glucocerebrosidase. In contrast, the marked activation of glucocerebrosidase by phosphatidylserine and galactocerebroside 3-sulfate (sulfatide) that was achievable in the sodium acetate buffer was totally inhibited by citrate or phosphate ions. The effects of NGS and DHGS on the kinetic parameters of control glucocerebrosidase were to lower the Km for the substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucoside from 5.5 mm to approximately 2 mm (in sodium citrate-phosphate buffer) and markedly increase the Vmax. Furthermore, with DHGS, significant activation was achieved at concentrations below the lipid's critical micellar concentration. None of the monoacylglycol- or diacylglycerol sulfates were capable of stimulating mutant glucocerebrosidases from either type 1 (Ashkenazi-Jewish) or type 2 Gaucher's disease patients. Like control glucocerebrosidase, the type 1 glucocerebrosidase was unresponsive to phosphatidylserine and sulfatide when the β-glucosidase assay was conducted in 0.2 m sodium citrate-phosphate buffer. Based on the differential action of these lipid activators in the two buffers and their effects on the mutant enzymes, we propose that, with regard to the lipid requirement of glucocerebrosidase, there are two classes of acidic lipids-one comprised of phosphatidylserine and sulfatide and the other comprised of the likes of NGS, DHGS, or sodium taurodeoxycholate. It appears that control glucocerebrosidase and the mutant enzyme of the patient with type 1 Gaucher's disease is reconstitutable with the first class of lipids whereas the glucocerebrosidase of the type 2 patient is not. The observations in this report are interpreted in terms of a model which postulates that normal glucocerebrosidase possesses at least two distinct lipid binding domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-353
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Volume262
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1988

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