Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disorder showcasing an interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental risks. This usually involves the coaction of a mixture of cell types associated with abnormal wound healing, leading to structural distortion and loss of gas exchange function. IPF bears fatal prognosis due to respiratory failure, revealing a median survival of approximately 2 to 3 years. This review showcases the ongoing progress in understanding the complex pathophysiology of IPF and it highlights the latest potential clinical treatments. In IPF, various components of the immune system, particularly clotting cascade and shortened telomeres, are highly involved in disease pathobiology and progression. This review also illustrates two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, nintedanib (OFEV, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany) and pirfenidone (Esbriet, Roche, Basel, Switzerland), that slow IPF progression, but unfortunately neither drug can reverse the course of the disease. Although the mechanisms underlying IPF remain poorly understood, this review unveils the past and current advances that encourage the detection of new IPF pathogenic pathways and the development of effective treatment methods for the near future.
- Chronic lung allograft dysfunction
- Extracellular matrix remodeling
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Lung transplantation