A method for subtyping group-specific component in bloodstains

Bruce Budowle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A method is described for subtyping group-specific component (Gc) derived from human bloodstains. Bloodstained cuttings were extracted in 6 M urea. The extracts were subjected to ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing in the pH 4.5-5.4 range. After isoelectric focusing, Gc was detected by immunofixation in cellulose acetate membranes. This method permitted the successful typing of Gc in at least four-month-old bloodstains maintained at room temperature. Bloodstains from 266 liquid blood samples of known origin were subjected to both this method and immunofixation conventional agarose gel electrophoresis with no phenotypic discrepancies observed. The Gc population data for Whites from Baltimore, Maryland, were homogeneous with white sample populations from other geographical locations within the U.S.A.; whlie Gc data from northern U.S.A. black sample populations appeared to be heterogeneous compared with a southern United States black sample population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-196
Number of pages10
JournalForensic Science International
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1987


  • Actin
  • Blacks
  • Bloodstains
  • Group-specific component
  • Isoelectric focusing
  • Subtyping
  • Ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing
  • Urea extraction
  • Whites


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