Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family receptors are expressed on different types of hematopoietic cells and play important role in immune regulation in health and disease. 2B4 (CD244, SLAMF4) and CS1 (CD319, CRACC, SLAMF7) were originally identified as NK cell receptors regulating NK cell cytolytic activity. 2B4 is expressed on all NK cells, a subpopulation of T cells, monocytes and basophils. Unlike other activating and inhibitory receptors, 2B4 (CD244) interaction with its ligand CD48 has been shown to mediate both activating and inhibitory functions. Defective signaling via 2B4 due to mutations in signaling adaptor SAP contributes to X-linked lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP). Expression of 2B4 and CS1 are altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CS1 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) and anti-CS1 mab (Elotuzumab/Empliciti) has been approved by FDA as a breakthrough drug for treatment for MM patients. CAR -T cells or CAR- NK cells containing full length CS1 or the signaling domain of 2B4 with TCR-ζ have shown promising results to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases.